Pyelonephritis is an ascending urinary tract infection that has reached the pelvis of the kidney. It is a form of nephritis that is also referred to as pyelitis. Severe cases of pyelonephritis can lead to pyonephrosis (pus in kidney), urosepsis, kidney failure and even death.
Symptoms usually include fever, accelerated heart rate, painful urination, blood in the urine, foul-smelling urine, discolored urine, polydipsia, Polyuria, abdominal pain radiating to the back, nausea, and tenderness on the affected side. Pyelonephritis requires antibiotic therapy, and sometimes surgical intervention such as ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrostomy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy, as well as treatment of any underlying causes to prevent its recurrence