Kidney Disease (Congenital) in Dogs

Although much less common than acquired renal disorders, congenital kidney diseases are a frequent cause of renal failure in dogs. Congenital kidney disorders are a group of diseases that are due to either malformation or abnormal functioning of the kidneys, or both. These disorders are usually present at birth (congenital) due to inherited or genetic problems or disease processes that affect the development and growth of the kidney before or shortly after birth. Most dogs that are diagnosed with these disorders are less than five years of age.

Common symptoms associated with congenital and developmental kidney disorders include lack of appetite (anorexia), lack of energy, excessive urination, excessive thirst, weight loss, vomiting, abdominal enlargement, blood urine, abdominal pain and fluid build-up under the skin.

Inherited or genetic problems may result in several types of kidney malformation and/or malfunction. Some of the types of inherited or genetic disorders include

Failure of kidney formation (renal agenesis)

Complete absence of one or both kidneys

Abnormal kidney development (renal dysplasia)

Displacement of one or both kidneys (renal ectopia)

Glomerulopathy (disease of the group of small blood vessels in the functional unit of the kidney)

Kidney disease involving the tubules and tissue spaces (tubulointerstitial nephropathy)

Polycystic kidney disease, characterized by formation of multiple, variable-sized cysts throughout the kidney tissue

Dilation of small blood vessels in the kidney (renal telangiectasia), characterized by multiple blood vessel malformations involving the kidneys and other organs

Amyloidosis of the kidney, is a group of conditions of differing causes in which insoluble proteins (amyloids) are deposited outside of cells in various tissues and organs, compromising their normal function

Nephroblastoma (a congenital kidney tumor)

Multifocal renal-cyst adenocarcinoma, a hereditary kidney cancer in dogs

Fanconi’s syndrome, a generalized functional abnormality involving the tubules of the kidney, characterized by impaired reabsorption

Presence of glucose in the urine due to primary kidney disease (primary renal glucosuria)

Cystinuria, excessive excretion of cystine (an amino acid) into the urine

Xanthinuria, excessive excretion of xanthine into the urine

Hyperuricuria, excessive excretion of uric acid, sodium urate, or ammonium urate into the urine

Primary hyperoxaluria, a disorder characterized by intermittent high levels of oxalic acid or oxalates in the urine

Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, a disorder of kidney concentrating ability, caused by diminished kidney responsiveness to an antidiuretic hormone, such that excessive urine is produced

Leave a Comment