Bullous pemphigoid is an acute or chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters, more appropriately known as bullae, at the space between the skin layers epidermis and dermis. This rare condition is an autoimmune disorder, meaning an abnormal immune response to a normal component of the body – in this case a protein in the skin. This results in blisters and ulcers in the skin and/or mouth. The disease is often severe, depending on how widespread are the affected areas. This condition is characterized by the appearance of fluid or pus filled blisters, and severe open sores on the skin and/or mucus-lined tissue of the mouth. Bullous pemphigoid requires initial aggressive treatment, and may be fatal if left untreated.
Some breeds, such as collies, Shetland sheepdogs, and Doberman pinschers are believed to be at the highest risk.
There are two types of Bullous pemphigoid, the common blisters (bullous) form and a rare, chronic form.
Open sores, short-term blisters and circular lesions on top layer of skin are symptoms of bullous form. The onset of this condition is sudden severe, and distribution of these symptoms is widespread across the head, neck, abdomen, groin, feet, and mucous membrane (the moist tissues lining the nose and mouth). Severely affected dogs may also exhibit lack of appetite and depression.