Spermatocele is a cyst or cysts containing sperm in the epididymis. The epididymis is a tubular structure located behind the testicles that transports, stores, and matures sperm between the testicle and the vas deferens. The vas deferens is the portion of the male reproductive tract that empties semen into the urethra during ejaculation. Spermatocele usually is associated with blockage (loss of patency) of the epididymis.
The accumulation of sperm eventually results in an inflammatory process, and the development of a nodule of tissue, referred to as a sperm granuloma. Sperm granuloma is an inflammatory response in the tissue of the epididymis, which develops when sperm cells escape from the tubes into the tissue. Either condition can lead to blockage or obstruction of the duct system, leading to blockage of sperm with resulting infertility.
Pain is rarely present in dogs with these disorders and mostly, no visible symptoms are present. In case of unilateral disorder, most dogs remain fertile and the condition goes unnoticed. If the condition is bilateral, infertility leads to diagnosis of these disorders.