Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is the name of a group of conditions that occur when the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow are damaged. This damage leads to low numbers of one or more type of blood cells.
The MDS are a diverse collection of hematological (blood-related) medical conditions that involve ineffective production (or dysplasia) of the myeloid class of blood cells.
Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells.
Myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Normally, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that develop into mature blood cells over time. A blood stem cell may become a myeloid stem cell or a lymphoid stem cell. The lymphoid stem cell develops into a white blood cell. The myeloid stem cell develops into one of three types of mature blood cells: Red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets.
In myelodysplastic syndromes, the blood stem cells do not mature into healthy red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. The immature blood cells, called blasts, do not function normally and either die in the bone marrow or soon after they enter the blood. This leaves less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets to develop in the bone marrow. When there are fewer blood cells, infection, anemia, or easy bleeding may occur.
Myelodysplastic syndromes often do not cause early symptoms and are sometimes found during a routine blood test.
Common symptoms associated with this disorder are
Pale mucous membranes
Enlargement of spleen and liver
Shortness of breath