Proteinuria is the presence of protein in the urine. Normal urine contains only small amounts of protein if at all. The kidneys restricts the passage of large proteins like Albumin. Smaller proteins can pass freely through the glomerulus, but are largely reabsorbed by the cells of the kidney tubules so effectively even the smaller proteins … Read more


Pollakiuria is the passing small quantities of urine more frequently than normal. Incontinence is also commonly associated with the condition. Generally it is caused due to diseases of the bladder, prostate or gentials.


Dehydration involves loss of water and electrolytes such as sodium, chloride and potassium. This could be due to inadequate fluid intake or conditions like Fever, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria and other diseases that increase the loss of water. The treatment is to provide the body with fluids. If it is not possible to administer orally then … Read more

Vaginal Swelling

There is swelling of the bitch’s vagina. This is not very common; however can occur due to UTI, tumors, contamination of the vagina, toxins, or vaginal infections. It may be accompanied with vaginal discharge, polyuria, and licking.

Vaginal Discharge

There is a discharge from the bitch’s vagina. This could include mucus, blood or pus. If the discharge contains any abnormalities and is not due to heat or mating, then it could be due to UTI, vaginal trauma, fetal death, retained placenta or vaginal infection.

Undescended Testicle

The decent of one or both testes of the dog into the scrotal sac has been partial or incomplete. Sometimes it may be delayed upto 6 months post birth and is not abnormal. If the testes are in the inguinal canal, they could be palpated. Small dogs are more prone and the right testes is … Read more

Testicular Swelling

The testicles are visibly swollen. Could result due to swelling of the testicles or the tube where the sperms are stored. This could also be accompanied with infertility, lethargy, licking, pain, fever etc. Causes could be trauma to scrotum, infections or inflammation of the bladder or prostate, or bite wounds.

Small Testicles

The dog has visibly small testicles. This is usually accompanied with infertility. This could be due to hypoplasia or degeneration. Causes could be exposure to radiation, heat, toxins, drugs, or could be due to trauma, old age, or even hormonal imbalance.

Premature Labor

The pregnant bitch or dam is experiencing premature contractions before 58 days of gestation. Causes could be infections, cysts, hormonal imbalances, injury, malnutrition, death of one or more fetuses, a change in environment, or any stress or anxiety can lead to early labor. In some cases, it could be genetic.

Persistent Heat

The dog is experiencing a heat cycle of more than 6 to 7 weeks. This could be due to estrogen administration accidentally or for treatment. Other causes include cysts, tumors, hepatic shunts, and ovarian inflammation. Prolonged heat and estrogen levels can cause anemia and other blood disorders.